PLAG1 Break Apart FISH Probe
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PLAG1 Break Apart FISH Probe
Empire Genomics’ PLAG1 Break Apart FISH Probe is designed to flank
the PLAG1 gene and is typically used for detecting PLAG1 rearrangements such as translocations. This probe is FISH confirmed on normal peripheral blood
metaphase spreads and interphase nuclei. The probe comes labeled in
green and orange by default, but may be
customized to meet your needs.
** This product is for in vitro and research use only. This product is not intended for diagnostic use.
Turnaround Time: 7-10 Business Days Shipping Time: 1-2 Day Expedited Shipping
Pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 encodes a zinc finger protein with 2 putative nuclear localization signals. PLAG1, which is developmentally regulated, has been shown to be consistently rearranged in pleomorphic adenomas of the salivary glands. PLAG1 is activated by the reciprocal chromosomal translocations involving 8q12 in a subset of salivary gland pleomorphic adenomas. Three transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
There is though to be a relationship between genetic aberrations, preexisting pleomorphic adenoma (PA), and the structural abnormality of epithelial-myoepithelial carcinomas (EMCAs). EMCAs were analyzed on a molecular level for PA by using FISH. FISH analysis was used with our break apart probes to detect PLAG1 and HMGA2 rearrangements. It was found that a relationship was present, as 80% of EMCA arise from PA, and EMCA genetics can vary with the status of PLAG1 and HMGA2.
Lacrimal gland tumors are histologically similar to salivary gland tumors. In the salivary glands, pleomorphic adenoma (PA) and carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (ca_ex_PA) are both characterized by PLAG1 and HMGA2 gene rearrangements. However, it is not known if these rearrangements are present in lacrimal gland PA and ca_ex_PA. FISH analysis was done with our PLAG1, HMGA2, and NFIB break apart probes. It was found that rearrangements were frequent in the tested lacrimal glands and that testing for the rearrangement can help in distinguishing lacrimal gland PA and ca_ex_PA from de novo carcinomas.
Plasmacytoid cells (PLCs) are frequently reported components of salivary pleomorphic adenoma (SPA), and regarded as modified myoepithelial cells. In rare cases where a SPA is composed mostly of PLCs, the neoplasm is referred to as plasmacytoid myoepithelioma (pMYO). A genetic hallmark of SPA is rearrangement of PLAG1. In this study, 3 pMYOS were analyzed for PLAG1 translocations using Empire Genomics’ PLAG1 break apart probe, to determine whether this aberration is shared by both tumor types. PLAG1 was found rearranged in 1 out of 3 pMYOs.
Compared to adult neoplasms, only a small portion of pediatric tumors display large epithelioid morphology, including certain salivary gland, thyroid, hepatic, and head and neck tumors. FISH testing can be used to elucidate the identity of these cancers in pediatric and adolescent patients, as many of these tumor types harbor characteristic translocations. One of the cases in this book involved FISH analysis of an 18-year-old boy’s parotid gland lesion. Empire Genomics’ PLAG1 dual-color break-apart probe was used to test for PLAG1 gene rearrangements. Results were positive, clarifying the tumor’s identity as pleomorphic adenoma or benign mixed tumor.
Pleomorphic adenoma (PA), although considered benign, can undergo malignant transformation, and metastatic cases are well documented. There is a lack of research on genetic characterization of metastasizing versus benign PA. In this study, four cases of metastasizing PAs were cytogenetically profiled using both RNA sequencing and FISH. PLAG1 and HMGA2 break-apart probes from Empire Genomics were used to confirm rearrangements of the genes. PLAG1 rearrangements were detected in all four cases. Results demonstrated that MPA harbors the same disease-defining molecular hallmarks as their benign counterparts.
Lipoblastoma is a rare benign neoplasm that can be difficult to histologically distinguish from other lipomatous tumors. PLAG1 aberrations are recurrent in lipoblastoma. The subjects of this study were 3 pediatric lipoblastoma patients with varying types of PLAG1 aberrations (including deletions, amplifications, and rearrangements), all which resulted in different modes of PLAG1 upregulation. Our PLAG1 break apart probe was used to detect PLAG1 rearrangements in the tumors.
This textbook – Modern Techniques in Cytopathology – references our PLAG1 break apart probe for detecting PLAG1 rearrangements in epithelial cells. The chapter focuses specifically on FISH, expanding on the different types of mutations that can be detected with FISH, including examples of several disease-specific mutations with accompanying probe recommendations.
This case study looked at a parotid gland carcinosarcoma in a 77 year old patient. Our PLAG1 and HMGA2 break apart probes were used to detect rearrangements of the genes in both the carcinomatous and sarcomatous components of his tumor, to determine whether they harbored different genetic lesions. Both components were positive for PLAG1 and negative for HMGA2 translocations.